Bird Families

Lesser storm petrel Oceanodroma monorhis

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Small, completely dark storm petrel. There are no age, sex and seasonal differences in plumage. The whole body is dark brown. On the head, neck and back there is a slight grayish, and on the underside of the body there is a smoky-brown plaque. Wing coverts are light brown, flight feathers and tail are black. The beak and legs are black. One-day-old downy chicks are covered with brownish-gray down, reaching 20 mm on the upper side of the body; on the lower side, it is shorter and denser. The beak has a black end, the upper beak is whitish-pink at the base, the tubes are gray, lightening towards the sides. The mandible, with the exception of the end, is gray. Paws are whitish-pink, shields on the front side of the tarsus and on the upper side of the toes - with a gray tinge. The claws are black.

Spread

Small islands near Vladivostok - the islands of Verkhovsky and about. Karamzin. Outside Russia, islands along the coast of Japan, the Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula in China.

Habitat

Breeds on sea islands, is connected with land only during nesting period. On migrations, it gravitates towards the ocean shelves. In Russia, the main nesting site is located on a slope overgrown with spikelets, wormwood and reed grass of the larger of the two Verkhovsky Islands and occupies almost the entire surface of it. The average density of nests is 0.93 / 1 m2 (1988). Black-tailed gulls, old men, rhinos puffins and spectacled guillemots also nest here. It arranges nests in burrows, which it digs in a layer of turf close to the surface of the earth, and in niches between stones. Occasionally occupies the old burrows of the puffin rhinoceros and the old man. The tray is lined with dry grass and small stones.Both partners incubate a single egg. Chicks stay in burrows until frost and snowfall. The survival rate of chicks is about 61% (1985). In the nesting colony, birds are active only at night.

Number

The number of the reproductive part of the world population is no more than 135 thousand individuals. Its main part - 129 thousand - is concentrated in the three largest continental colonies. Two of them are located in the southwest. the coast of the Korean Peninsula on the islands of Kugul (46165 pairs) and Chilbal (9932 pairs), the third - in Russia on the islands of Verkhovsky. About 1000 birds nest in Japan. On the larger Verkhovsky Islands in 1966, about 11 thousand breeding pairs were counted. In 1985, there were 7500, and in 1988, 8370 pairs of birds (4 test plots of 5 m2 each with subsequent extrapolation). On the small island of Verkhovsky and on the island. Karamzin, no more than 100 pairs nest. Despite the high and rather stable number of these birds, there is a real threat of destruction of the Russian population. The Verkhovsky Islands are located in the recreation area of ​​Vladivostok and are visited by people throughout the warm season. As a result of the excursions, dozens, sometimes hundreds of destroyed nests remain in the colonies. thin vaults of burrows do not bear the weight of a person. In addition, the automatic lighthouse on the top of the Big Island is periodically undergoing repairs, resulting in over a thousand nests being trampled. In the center of the storm petrel colony, a power source for the lighthouse is installed, which creates a high background radiation (15,000 mcr / hour).

Security

It is included in the IUCN-96 Red List, Appendices of bilateral agreements concluded by Russia with Japan, the DPRK and the Republic of Korea on the protection of migratory birds. In 1984, the islands of Verkhovsky were declared a Natural Monument as a nesting place for the little storm petrel.It is necessary to include the Verkhovsky Islands in the Far Eastern Marine Reserve.

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