Bird Families

White-bellied Long-tailed Larvae / Pericrocotus erythropygius

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Black-red long-tailed larvaeater (Pericrocotus ethologus) distributed in the Himalayas, eastern Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and Thailand, Southeast Asia and China. These larvae-eaters inhabit light forests, hills overgrown with thin forests at altitudes from 1000 to 2500 m above sea level.

Description and behavior

The body length of an adult bird reaches 18 cm. The flocks of these birds, dressed in black and scarlet plumage, make an unforgettable impression when they fly in the blue sky against the background of the snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas. Long-tailed larvae are very sociable and mobile birds. All day long they are busy looking for food: insects, tree buds, fruits. The flock members keep in touch with each other by making low-pitched chirping sounds. In many areas, this species makes vertical seasonal migrations, moving for the winter to lower altitudinal zones.

Introduction

Larvae (lat. Campephagidae ) Is a family of small or medium-sized songbirds that live mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. In total, there are approximately 85 species of larvae-eaters, divided into 8-9 genera. Until recently, the genus of forest larvae (Tephrodornis), but it is probably closer to the forest shrike (Prionopidae) or to the family Malaconotidae... Another monotypic genus of black-breasted larvae (Chlamydochaera) is currently assigned to the thrush family (Turdidae). Some birds in this family are in danger of extinction, including the species Coracina bicolor, Coracina newtoni and Pericrocotus igneus.

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    1.1. Description

    Small or medium-sized birds 13-35 cm long and weighing from 6 to 180 g. The beak is wide at the base, slightly curved downward, with teeth, well adapted for catching insects in the air. There are hard, bristly feathers around the nasal openings. The wings are rather long, tapering at the tip. The tail is of medium length, rounded or stepped. Back feathers and rump feathers in most species have a rigid, flattened shaft and a soft and thin end, which allows birds to raise them on end in case of approaching danger. Plumage varies greatly in different species: from nondescript (as in most shrike larvae, in particular in the Mauritian shrike larvae (Coracina typica)) to brightly colored (for example, in long-tailed larvae - in particular, in the species Pericrocotus igneus). As a rule, the plumage of females is calmer compared to males.

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    2. Composition

    According to the modern classification, the family includes the following genera:

    • Edolisoma Jacquinot & Pucheran, 1853 representatives of this genus previously belonged to Coracina,
    • Lalage Boie, 1826.
    • Celebesica Strand, 1928 monotypic genus, formerly part of Coracina,
    • Pericrocotus Boie, 1826,
    • Campephaga Vieillot, 1816,
    • Malindangia Mearns, 1907,
    • Coracina Vieillot, 1816,
    • Lobotos Reichenbach, 1850,
    • Campochaera Sharpe, 1878,
    • Cyanograucalus Hartlaub, 1861 monotypic genus, formerly in Coracina,
    • Ceblepyris Cuvier, 1816, African species Coracina were allocated to this genus,

    • the name analis as with the characteristic appearance of the bird. Like other larvaeaters, it is a songbird. The voice of the mountain shrike grub-eater is enough
    • Edolisoma dispar lat. - a species of passerine birds from the larvae family Campephagidae Endemic to Indonesia. The natural habitat of these birds are
    • larvaeater lat. Coracina novaehollandiae is a songbird of the larvae family The masked shrike larvae 33 cm long is a slender bird
    • passerine birds from the family of larvae-eaters Campephagidae The color is gray-white-black, which distinguishes it from other larvae-eaters Breeds in the southeastern
    • lat. Pericrocotus cinnamomeus - a small songbird from the larvae family Dwarf long-tailed larvae 16 cm long, has a strong, dark
    • larvaeater lat. Lalage leucopyga is a species of passerine bird of the larvae family Campephagidae Small sparrow-sized bird with contrasting black and white
    • salangan, Aerodramus spodiopygius Order: Passeriformes Family: Larva-eaters Spotted whistler larva, Lalage maculosa Order: Passeriformes
    • Passeriformes Family: Swallow Order: Passeriformes Family: Larvae Order: Passeriformes Family: Bulbul Order:
    • Todirhamphus recurvirostris E ti otala Order: Passeriformes Family: Larva-eaters Buro-backed larva-beetle - whistler, Lalage sharpei E mititae Spotted
    • Passerines Family: Corvids Order: Passerines Family: Larvaeaceae Order: Passerines Family: Oriole Order: Passerines Family:
    • Chlamydochaera 1 species - Chlamydochaera jefferyi, previously attributed to the larvae family P. Clement and R. Hathway. Thrushes 2000. T. A.D. Poyser Ltd. ISBN
    • showed that the family of larvae-eaters is the closest to the oriole group of birds.The authors, known for their fundamental revision of the bird system, included
    • flava Motacilla tschutschensis Order: Passeriformes Family: Larvaeidae Thin-billed shrike larvae, Coracina tenuirostris Order: Passeriformes
    • significantly expanded the family, including the completely different from the raven larvae Campephagidae and the birds of paradise Paradisaeidae, and also including it
    • trees, occasionally forming mixed associations with fig orioles or larvaeaters Nests in spring and summer corresponding to autumn and winter months in
    • Flutist Sitella Australian Whistlers Sugar honey suckers Drongo Larvaeater Oriole Corpus Swallow Shrike Birds of Paradise Corvids
    • Family: Larvae
    • Shrub birds Atrichornithidae New Zealand starlings Callaeidae Larvae Campephagidae Flutist Cinclosomatidae Australian arboreal
    • groups to the same family, while larva-eaters Campephagidae and bulbul Pycnonotidae are also referred to closely related families.
    • Red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus Order: Passeriformes Family: Larvae White-breasted shrike larvae, Coracina pectoralis Red-shouldered
    • List of birds of Russia - a list of all bird species that have been registered in Russia. The list includes about 790 species. Among them are
    • Bhutan's list of birds includes a total of 680 species, two of which were bred by humans, 6 introduced. 22 species are endangered
    • Below is a list of birds of the order of passerines of Japan. There is a separate list of non-passerine birds in Japan. The following tags have been used to highlight
    • The avifauna of Brunei includes 456 species, among which four are the endemic black-breasted larvae, the browned jungle flycatcher, the Sarawak
    • The List of Threatened Bird Species contains a list of Aves bird species to which the IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has been assigned

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    1.2. Spread

    Distributed in the tropical and subtropical zones of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia. On the territory of the Russian Federation, one species is found - the gray larvaeater (Pteropodocys divaricatus), living in deciduous and mixed forests of the Amur Region and in the south of Primorsky Territory. The range of genera of forest, flycatchers and simply larvaeaters is mostly limited to the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Representatives of island larvae live in Australia.

    1.3. Habitats

    In the overwhelming case, they live in trees, often in the upper tier of the forest, near the leaf canopy. Many species prefer forest edges. About 11 species prefer more open spaces. Previously, it was believed that the only species that spends most of its time on earth is the Australian forest larvaeater (Pteropodocys maxima), but this bird is currently regarded as belonging to a different family. It is found in swampy, humid tropical or arid xerophytic forests, in mangroves, in thickets of shrubs or savannas. Most species are sedentary and tied to a certain territory. However, some species, especially those found in Africa and Australia, migrate over short distances. Three species of larvae from Central and East Asia are migratory birds: for example, the gray larvae (Pericrocotus divaricatus) winters in the Philippines.

    1.4. Behavior and reproduction

    They are found alone, in pairs, or in flocks of the same sex (larvaeaters). Coracina lineata spends the night in groups. The breeding period of larvaeaters has not been sufficiently studied to date, but it has been noticed that most species, with the exception of Lalage tricolor, breed either in the rainy season or immediately after its end. Monogamous, reproduce in pairs (not colonies). The nest in most birds is built by both the male and the female, on a horizontal or forked branch, and is a small, shallow cup-shaped formation of dry branches of trees, bark, moss, lichen, grass and cobwebs, near which it can often be found. Clutch consists of 1-5 (most often 2-3) eggs. In most species, only the female incubates. The incubation period is 14-25 days. Both parents take care of the chicks. Chicks leave the nest in 13-24 days.

    1.5. Food

    They feed mainly on insects and other arthropods, including caterpillars (hence the name). Many species also eat seeds and fruits of plants: for example, the white-browed larvaeater (Lalage leucomela) and the species Coracina lineata love figs. In search of food, they examine the crowns of trees and shrubs, foliage, less often trunks or large branches. They often catch insects on the fly, on occasion they find them on the ground.

    2. Genera and species

    • African larvae ( Campephaga )
      • Black African larvaeater ( Campephaga flava )
      • Blue-black African larvaeater ( Campephaga petiti )
      • Red-shouldered African larvaeater ( Campephaga phoenicea )
      • Purple-throated African larvaeater ( Campephaga quiscalina )
      • Campephaga sulphurata
    • Orange larvae ( Campochaera )
      • Orange Larvaeater ( Campochaera sloetii )
    • Shrike larvae ( Coracina )
      • Celebesian shrike grub-eater ( Coracina abbotti )
      • Mountain Shrike Larvae ( Coracina analis )
      • Moluccan shrike grub-eater ( Coracina atriceps )
      • Blue Shrike Larvae ( Coracina azurea )
      • Two-colored shrike larvae ( Coracina bicolor )
      • Red-spotted shrike larvae ( Coracina boyeri )
      • Thick-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina caeruleogrisea )
      • Forest Shrike Larvae ( Coracina caesia )
      • Melanesian shrike larvae ( Coracina caledonica )
      • Coracina ceramensis
      • Madagascar shrike larvae ( Coracina cinerea )
      • Filipino shrike larvae ( Coracina caerulescens )
      • Coracina dispar
      • Striped shrike larvae ( Coracina dohertyi )
      • Dwarf shrike larvae ( Coracina fimbriata )
      • Island Shrike Larvae ( Coracina fortis )
      • Silvery Shrike Larvae ( Coracina graueri )
      • Cicadic Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina holopolia )
      • Coracina incerta
      • Coracina ingens
      • Coracina javensis
      • Black-faced Shrike Larvae ( Coracina larvata )
      • White-lumbar shrike larvae ( Coracina leucopygia )
      • Yellow-eyed shrike larvae ( Coracina lineata )
      • Long-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina longicauda )
      • Coracina macei
      • Coracina maxima
      • Sharp-tailed shrike larvae ( Coracina mcgregori )
      • Black-headed shrike grub-eater ( Coracina melanoptera )
      • Coracina melas
      • Funeral Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina melaschistos )
      • Coracina mindanensis
      • Black-bellied Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina montana )
      • Dark-shouldered shrike grub-eater ( Coracina morio )
      • Reunion shrike grub-eater ( Coracina newtoni )
      • Masked Shrike Larvae ( Coracina novaehollandiae )
      • Coracina ostenta
      • White-winged shrike larvae ( Coracina papuensis )
      • Tiny Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina parvula )
      • White-chested Shrike Larvae ( Coracina pectoralis )
      • Coracina personata
      • Garden Shrike Larvae ( Coracina polioptera )
      • Coracina salomonis
      • Slate shrike larvae ( Coracina schistacea )
      • Dark Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina schisticeps )
      • Stripe-bellied shrike larvae ( Coracina striata )
      • Coracina sula
      • Sunda Shrike Larvaeater ( Coracina temminckii )
      • Thin-billed shrike larvae ( Coracina tenuirostris )
      • Mauritian shrike grub-eater ( Coracina typica )
    • Flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus )
      • Black-winged flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus hirundinaceus )
      • Brown-backed flycatcher larvae ( Hemipus picatus )
    • Whistler larvae ( Lalage )
      • Black-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage atrovirens )
      • Red-bellied Whistler Larvae ( Lalage aurea )
      • White-browed Whistler Larvae ( Lalage leucomela )
      • Long-tailed whistler larvae ( Lalage leucopyga )
      • Spotted Whistler Grub ( Lalage maculosa )
      • Filipino whistler larvae ( Lalage melanoleuca )
      • White-fronted whistler larvae ( Lalage nigra )
      • Brown-backed whistler larvae ( Lalage sharpei )
      • White-winged Whistler Larvae
      • Lalage tricolor
    • Lobotos
      • Lobotos lobatus
      • Lobotos oriolinus
    • Long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus )
      • Short-billed long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus brevirostris )
      • Pericrocotus cantonensis
      • Dwarf long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus cinnamomeus )
      • Gray larvaeater ( Pericrocotus divaricatus )
      • White-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus erythropygius )
      • Black-red long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus ethologus )
      • Fire-bellied long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus flammeus )
      • Pericrocotus igneus
      • Sumbawan long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus lansbergei )
      • Sumatran long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus miniatus )
      • Pink long-tailed larvae ( Pericrocotus roseus )
      • Gray-throated long-tailed larvaeater ( Pericrocotus solaris )
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    This abstract is based on an article from the Russian Wikipedia. Synchronization completed 07/17/11 00:54:21 AM
    Categories: Animals alphabetically, Bird families, Larvaeidae.
    Text available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license.

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