|Latin name:||Columba livia|
|Additionally:||European species description|
Appearance and behavior... Body length 32–37 cm, wingspan 62–72 cm, body weight 200–400 g. The appearance of the dove is well known to everyone. Of the closely related species, it can be confused with the clintuch, from which the dove, with all the variability of its color, reliably differs in orange eyes and a black beak. A somewhat less reliable sign is a white spot on the lower back, since sometimes there are individuals in which it is almost or completely absent. On the territory under consideration, the rock dove is a synanthropic species found in human settlements both in rural areas and in cities. The behavior and demeanor of urban and rural birds differ markedly, for example, urban pigeons willingly sit on tree branches and on wires, while those living in rural areas never do this, being closer in behavior to their wild relatives living in rocky landscapes.
Description... Individuals of the original, "wild" color can most often be found among the doves living in the countryside and on the outskirts of cities. They have a light gray wing flap with two distinct black stripes on large coverts, a pure white spot on the loin, a gray tail with a wide black stripe along the outer edge. Among urban pigeons, birds of a darker color, up to completely black, predominate noticeably. Quite often there are also partially or completely white and coffee-brown pigeons, which are the result of crossing between wild synanthropic sisars and pedigree domestic pigeons. In such birds, even the color of the beak and eyes may differ - the beak may be pink, and the eyes may be dark.
Vote... The quiet, lingering cooing of a blue-gray dove is familiar to many, it differs well from the voices of the rest of our pigeons.
Distribution and status... In the wild, it is found in some places in Africa and Eurasia, in particular in the Crimea and the Caucasus. Synanthropic populations populated most of the world's cities. In European Russia, it is ubiquitous in settlements. In large cities, it is one of the most numerous birds. In rural areas, it is more common in the southern regions, especially in the steppe zone. Here, in small towns, it can be partially replaced by a ringed dove. Sedentary view.
Lifestyle... In urban populations, they are able to reproduce all year round, regardless of the weather, although the chances of successfully flying out of winter broods are very low. It is well known lecturing, in which males pursue females and demonstrate to them various postures and steps, as well as current flights with loud flapping of wings. The attics of buildings are most often used as a nesting place, there is practically no nest - usually these are several twigs laid out along the edge of a hole trampled in a mass of caked droppings. Food in cities is obtained mainly in open garbage dumps and in places where people traditionally feed birds. In rural areas, they accumulate in large flocks at elevators and other agricultural facilities, where they feed on grain and mixed fodder. Often found in the fields in mixed flocks with other pigeons, primarily wood pigeons. Wild doves live in the mountains and nest on rocks.
In the Volga region and in the south of the Urals, flights were registered brown pigeonColumba eversmannibreeding in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. It looks like a clintuch, but smaller (body length 28–31 cm, wingspan 60–62 cm), upper body with a brown tint, beak with a dark base and a greenish-yellow top, yellow eyes, pinkish legs. In flying birds, a shortened tail and a white, like a dove's, loin are noticeable, the underside of the wing is light gray. Tokuya publishes a dull cooing “uupu-uupbuuu, uupu-uupbuuu. ».