Bird Families

Warbler (plumbeitarsus) - Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus, species


The last time I wrote about pulcherik. Tiny warblers Phylloscopus pulcher. Background view of subalpine woodlands in Mustang. There was also a photo of another warbler, which feeds here on rhododendrons and on Himalayan birches. This is a green warbler. Not simple. Special. I suffered with her while I decoded. ...

Photo 2. Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides - Greenish Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

You see the obvious green twigs, but you don't hear the song. You hear a lot of other songs, and you don't associate them with the green chiffchaff. We all know how "our" green chiffchaff sings - even the western viridanus, even the eastern plumbeitarsus. Their song is similar, in general, poorly audible by a person (in parts of the knees it is indistinguishable)  a kind of long "fight", not devoid of rhythm, but as if from "stumbling" syllables. However, in the central Himalayas, not viridanus or plumbeitarsus, but the most nominative trochiloides - the race according to which Sundevall described the species in 1837. True, most likely for wintering specimens. So it turned out that her song by ear (to my ear, at least) is more reminiscent of the song of some tit of the genus Perviparus (in some way) and at the same time (in some way) the "slow" (two-syllable) song of the Eastern Talovka is even according to the performance (from the characteristic two-syllable urges of the form), with the same stress in the syllables throughout the entire song - without "stumbling". Well, I didn’t associate it with a green warbler, and it’s hard to believe that our green warblers (both races) and this one will respond to the mutual playing of the song.

Photo 3-4. Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides - Greenish Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Until it came to light that a Himalayan green warbler was issuing this strange, even song, a week had definitely passed. By the way, it is generally accepted that green warblers feed mainly on the foliage in the crowns.

Photo 5. Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides - Greenish Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Indeed, they feed in crowns - in bird cherry trees, and in rhododendrons as well (together with pulcheriks).

Photo 6. Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides - Greenish Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

But in the Himalayas, they also feed a lot on land, at least in early spring. Just along those potholes and bumps where nests are arranged. There is no rigid stereotype of feeding behavior. That is, it is not at the level of the species as a taxon - as a morphological and genetic species. And at the level of society there is. All passerine birds are very, very opportunistic, but the development of individual opportunism (individuals) into a new social tradition (groups) is a big problem and an interesting topic of studying the behavior of birds (in nature) and the psychological aspects of their sociality.

In addition to pulcherids and green warblers, a dull warbler (Phylloscopus humei) can be found near the forest border. But it is sporadic and occurs in other physiognomic divisions. In the birch forests with fir, it is not in the Mustang. In nature, you cannot equal it with a green chiffchaff (the first of the crumbs), but in the photograph you are surprised at the similarity. (see two photos below). Of course, their behavior is different, the song and calls by itself.

Photo 7. Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides - Greenish Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Photo 8. Phylloscopus humei– Hume's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

The dull lightning in the Mustang is more common in high-altitude oases such as almond orchards. But on the steep slope of the Nilgiri, in some places there are spruce and fir in the lush undergrowth in the felling sites.

A few more of her photos:

Photo 10. Phylloscopus humei– Hume's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Photo 11. Phylloscopus humei– Hume's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Photo 12. Phylloscopus humei– Hume's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Photos 13 and 14. Phylloscopus humei - Hume's Warbler, Himalaya, Nepal.

Slightly lower than pulcherik and green warblers, in the upper strip of a distinctly coniferous forest - from fir and hemlock, especially along river gorges, there lives another "green warbler" - like this.

Photo 15. Phylloscopus magnirostris– Large-billed Leaf Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

Large-billed warbler. She looks like green, too. And no less. Is that the stripe on the wing is not so pronounced. But this is a warbler from another world. She is a phlegmatic. Can sit for a long time in one place in the crowns and sing. And the song cannot be confused. A kind of mechanical "hurdy-gurdy": the same knee ("il-ti-li-till-li-ri, il-tili-tilliri"), repeated with amazing accuracy and "indifference" - without any foaming pressure and excitement.

Photo 16. Phylloscopus affinis - Tickel's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

And here is the “Himalayan warbler” (Phylloscopus affinis), which looks like our rattle, but with the habits and voice of a brown warbler, is already a characteristic type of rocky-clayey cliffs of Kali-Gandaki and, in general, the entire deserted area “under the forest” - with un-sodded soil and overgrown sparse forests from young blue pine (Pinus walllihi). Some individuals, however, penetrate high up right up to the rhododendra gullies on the border with the subalpic, where they meet with a green warbler. The green warbler is an aggressive bird. It seems that she does not pay attention to the pulcherik (some kind of miluzga is jumping), but to the affinis she immediately reacts and begins to drive her from her site.

Photo 17. Seicercus whistleri - Whistler's Warbler. Himalaya, Nepal.

But perhaps the most amusing of the Himalayan warblers of the upper forest strip is the little seycercus (one of the species of the genus Seicercus). They love thick fir, i.e. still a clear forest. Small, yellowish, with a yellow ring. Unobtrusive - like beads, although they often keep lower, not in the crown itself. The song is again very characteristic.

Number of species in "sister" taxa

viewWarbler (plumbeitarsus)Phylloscopus plumbeitarsusSwinhoe1861
family(Phylloscopidae)PhylloscopidaeAlström, Ericson, Olsson, & Sundberg2006
suborder / suborderSingersOscines
detachment / orderPasserinesPasseriformes
superorder / superorderNew Sky Birds (Typical Birds)NeognathaePycroft1900
infraclassReal birds (Fan-tailed birds)NeornithesGadow1893
subclassCilegus birds (Fantail birds)Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)Merrem1813
subtype / subdivisionVertebrates (Cranial)Vertebrata (Craniata)Cuvier1800
type / departmentChordatesChordata
supertypeCoelomic animalsCoelomata
sectionBilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)Bilateria (Triploblastica)
subkingdomMulticellular animalsMetazoa

Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization

Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of intraspecific. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.

However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.

A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.

According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.

Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.