Bird Families

Red-bellied redstart

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Red-bellied Redstart - Phoenicurus erythrogaster (Guldenstadt, 1775)
Order Passeriformes - Passeriformes

Category - III. Status: rare little-studied bird with poorly clarified nesting area

External appearance.

Slightly larger than a sparrow. The male is brightly colored, with a white top of the head and a "mirror", i.e. with a wide white stripe on the wings, the back and underside of the head are black, the ventral side of the body is dark rusty red. The female is modestly colored in an almost monotonous blackish-gray color and is hardly noticeable among the stones. Juveniles are similar to the female, but the males have a white "mirror". In nature, it is easily identified by bright plumage and constant flinching of the tail, characteristic of redstarts.

Spread.

The species lives only in the alpine zone, therefore it is sporadically distributed in the mountains of Southern Siberia. Breeds in the Western and Eastern Sayan Mountains. Found on ridge. Pogranichny, the Sai-Taiga plateau, near the Kusurgashev glacier on the Agulskie squirrels, the watershed plateau of the Kachika and Chinge-Kara-Khem rivers in the East Tuva highlands, in the Western Sayan near Lake Buibinskoe [1 - 3].

It was mined near the Biryusinsky mine, i.e. at the eastern borders of the region, presumably lives along the northern tributaries of the river. Khemchik. It was found in the highlands of the Western Sayan on rocks and scree, and in autumn it was rarely found in the alpine tundra.

In the Yenisei part of the Western Sayan (Sayano-Shushensky nature reserve), the red-bellied redstart is rare, but it is a background species of mountain tundra [6, 7]. In the basin of the river. Bolshie Ury was found in alpine cedars, near the border with woodlands.

Ecology and biology.

It nests in high mountains, at altitudes of 2000-3000 m above sea level, close to glaciers and snowfields, at steep rocks and near stone placers in the alpine belt, usually in places where the alpine tundra passes into alpine meadows where birds feed [1, 9].

In the basin of the river. Bolshie Ury is also found at the lower border of the cedar woodland. The nest is arranged in cracks of rocks or between stones. Clutch consists of 3-5 white eggs with a reddish speck. Chicks hatch in the second half of July. Two families with still poorly flying juveniles were found on 06.08.1996 in the vicinity of the Kusurgashev glacier in the Eastern Sayan.

Fully formed young birds were found on 09.08.1994 on the Sai-Taiga plateau. The food has not been studied, however, the remains of insects were found in the stomachs of the birds caught, in addition, these redstarts feed on alpine meadows and even on snowfields and glaciers, where arachnids and insects are collected. Winters in Heilongzyan-Hebei and Gunsi-Fujian wintering areas (app. 1).

Number and limiting factors.

Sporadic rare bird. In the basin of the river. Big Ury - 0.4 individuals per 1 km2, on the ridge. Borderline is rare. In the rocky tundra of the Sai-Taiga volcanic plateau (Shivit-Taiga volcano) on August 10, 1994, on an area 3 km long, four broods with well-flying chicks were encountered (on average, three fledglings in each) [1, 10].

On the mountain. Artysh post-nesting density was 8 broods on an area of ​​2.5 km2. The limiting factor is the limited alpine landscapes with snowfields and glaciers, which are the main habitats of the red-bellied redstart. Possibly low survival rate of chicks in the post-nesting period. In general, its reasons are not very clear due to the extremely poor knowledge of the species.

Security measures.

It is subject to protection as an extremely rare and sporadically widespread species in the southern regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In places of nesting, it is a low-vulnerability species and special conservation measures are not required. However, during migrations, the death of birds is possible for various reasons. The species is listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Khakassia.

Sources of information. Red Data Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. 1. Kim, Baranov, 1974, 2. Baranov, 2003, 3. Johanzen, 1929, 4. Sushkin, 1914, 5. Zabelin, 1976, 6. Sokolov et al., 1983, 7. Petrov, Rudkovsky, 1985, 8 Prokofiev, 1987, 9. Sushkin, 1938, 10. Gavrilov, 1999.

Compiled by: A.A. Baranov, I.K. Gavrilov. Photo: Gennady Dyakin, Kazakhstan.

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